Final Exam Question – Question 1

By Juliette Arcodia

Word Count: 598

Newspapers have been an integral part of society since their invention. The earliest newspaper to date came from 17th century Europe but since then the expansion of newspapers has grown exponentially. In America, newspapers gained popularity right before the start of the American Revolution. The war may have had a different outcome had it not been for the information provided in 001162snewspapers. John Adams wrote “records, newspaper, and even handbills, which in any way contributed to change the temper and views of the people, and compose them into an independent nation” (Unum).The founders of this new nation believed that newspapers were crucial to the new government they were forming, a government with free press. Newspapers also helped shape America because they were available to all. The cost was affordable to the average worker and the publishers reached out to all Americans. After the invention of the Linotype, more newspapers were printed for cheaper. They reached their peak in the 1940s, but since the invention of television, newspapers have been in rapid decline. “The United States had 267 fewer newspapers in 1990 than it had in 1940” (King et al 321). Publishers have tried many things in attempt to rebuild the newspaper industry. USA Today was introduced in an effort to entice readers with shorter, catchier news stories. This newspaper still exists today as one of the most popular running papers.

Editors have been forced to cut the length of the papers, let go employees, and eventually shut down all together. “Since 2008, more than 166 newspapers in the United States have closed down or stopped publishing a print edition” (Greenslade). This shows the dramatic shift from print to online. Print newspapers seem to be a thing of the past and many studies show that print newspapers will be completely gone by 2020. In a study from 2011, 65% of young readers said they read their news online. There are many reasons that have caused this. The Internet has become more and more popular and accessible. The rise of social networking has allowed people to view news that their friends may have shared via these networks.

Baltimore Sun online, 1.22.10  News online has even started to become more popular than news watched on a television. The Baltimore Sun, Maryland’s largest general-circulation daily newspaper, has adjusted with the trend from print to online. The Sun launched a website to keep with the current times. The website is very user-friendly and even caters to individual needs. One aspect of the website is the opinion section, that includes a section titled Readers Respond. Here readers are welcome to upload submissions that can later be viewed on the website. The Sun has even launched an app for mobile devices. This app can give readers updates on entertainment, weather, sports, etc. It can all be adjusted to your preferences. Since the launch of the website, The Baltimore Sun has begun charging users for the website. Readers may view 15 articles for free a month, but unlimited access costs money. Subscriptions are about the same cost of print newspaper subscriptions. The website also features many ads; above, around, and below the article you wish to read. This is not the case in print newspapers. Granted print newspapers do have advertisements, most advertisement companies have left the print newspapers business and moved to online. The shift from print newspapers to online news is due to the increase in technology. People no longer need to sit and read a hardcopy newspaper front-to-back. They are now able to browse the stories they want to read; faster, easier, and more efficiently online.



Final Exam #1 – Newspapers

Maddy Lesher

Final Exam #1

Word Count: 840


Newspapers are a big part of communication that started off small but eventually took off and developed into a huge part of where we get most of our information today. Newspapers have advanced so much since the Revolutionary War. Newspapers from the revolutionary war are much different from today yet shares some similarities.

Newspapers were the most dominant mass medium throughout most of U.S history. In the early stages of newspapers, before the Revolutionary War, there main purpose was to offer colonist with international news from one of our islands known as, Great Britain. They underwent censorship from the governmental authorities and most of them unfortunately did not last for long. (Text page 318) A man named Benjamin Harris, who had also edited a newspaper in London, published the first newspaper written in America in 1690. Unfortunately it was shut down just after one day because Harris did not have a license from the government to print it. After that Ben Franklin’s brother, James Franklin, then proceeded to print one of the first independent papers in American colonies during the year 1721. (Text page 318) As soon as the Revolutionary War was starting in 1775, newspapers began to spread to Americans and it grabbed their attention when there was talk of separation from England. When the Revolutionary War took off, many papers were being published and by the time the War was coming to an end forty-three newspapers were up and running. Our founders of the United States felt that “a free and unencumbered press was considered critical to self-government. Therefore they promised freedom of speech and the press and the right of people to gather peacefully and calmly, thanks to the First Amendment. (Text page 319)

After this happened, newspapers became very popular and grew in numbers. After newspapers became very prevalent, a guy by the name of Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. This technology helped newspapers improved because they could report out of town news much earlier; instead of taking weeks, they would take days or even just hours. Newspapers then began to see their selves heading down the road to victory. The introduction of the Linotype machine in 1886 was another great technical advancement. Linotype machines were used to speed up the progression of printing and allowed newspapers to print several editions during each day. (Text page 319)


The growth of newspaper chains had been growing very rapidly as well. Randolph Hearst had a huge influence over the political and social issues. He started his chain in San Francisco and then acquired another in New York. His chain expanded about thirty papers nationwide, giving him many views on the public opinion. During the first half of the twentieth century people felt like the newspapers were not satisfying their interest and point of views so they decided to come up with the idea to create their own newspapers. Ben Franklin helped write one of the first foreign-language newspapers in America. Unfortunately, by the second half of the twentieth century, newspapers started to slowly decline. They were having too much competition between the television and radio, that many papers were forced to shut down. The United States had 267 less newspapers in 1990 than it had in 1940. (Text page 320/321)

Newspapers sadly got less common but with the boom of the television, radio and Internet they slowly regained their popularity back. It made them really think about how to take another approach to the situation. Newspapers then figured out they could be online and on television. USA today became the first newspaper to successfully be published online. Television also joined in on the convergence effort, bringing the news to the TV for viewers to watch. Soon after newspapers established their own websites, they paved the way for the next stage of media convergence. Today, the world is developing very quickly with all these new technologies that no one wants to sit around anymore and wait for the newspaper to arrive. Nowadays you can just go on the Internet and access the news right then and there. It is much quicker and not to mention it is more entertaining because of the colors, pictures and videos instead of being in all black and white print.

The Baltimore Sun includes user participation and multimedia to make sure there readers are staying interested and involved at all times. For the users participation they incorporate a comments section at the end of each post so readers can stay updated and express their opinions! They also have the weather listed, sports, and many videos and pictures. All of these things really catch the viewer’s eyes especially with the entire use of coloring throughout the videos and pictures. This is a great website to access information really quickly and not to mention it is very entertaining. And last, but not least they have all of their social medias, for insistence, Facebook, twitter, and Instagram listed on the home page so it is easier to access instead of trying to find them on your own!!


Final; Communication and Politics

By Elizabeth Tierney

Word Count; 618



American politics has been changed dramatically over the years since the start of the revolution. This is largely due to the advances we have made in technology. With each era of politics there is something that changes the way the game is played. Every politician tries to be in the know with the changes and change with them for the better but only some are truly successful. These advances continue to happen and most likely will forever. The best example of a politician using technology to his advantage is Barack Obama in his 2008 presidential campaign.

            Originally in our country, political speeches and press releases were used as a communication between the elite. (Textbook, 153) No one outside of the room was made to hear the speeches such as the famous line, “give me liberty or give me death.” That changed when the newspaper came to. The newspaper allowed the printed message to travel outside of the room and to the people directly. Once the telegraph came, this directly impacted how far the newspaper could spread. It was able to reach past the city limits and travel hours away. After this drastic change came the radio. Politicians were now able to broadcast their messages into the homes and lives of those in the country. They went on broadcasting tours and announced themselves as running for office. (Textbook, 157) TV then came along to allow people to physically see the politicians as they went about their campaigns. The first broadcast was done from the democratic national convention, which aired around the east coast. (Textbook, 158) The internet has since come and it seems to have the most dramatic effect on politics. The game has changed from beating your opponent to sticking to your word and gaining a following.

            Recently there has been a major shift in the way political campaigns are run. The politician still tours around, meeting people face-to-face and shaking hands but there are an entirely new audience being met. It no longer mattered if you could be there to watch the debate at 8pm, if you had an internet connection you were able to see the debates, speeches and even advertisements as they were happening. Through the use of the internet politicians are able to reach a more broad, diverse and wider range of audience members. Walter Anderson wrote an article about how people are affected by this change and how many more people are reached through the use of the internet. With the change in audience, the election and campaign was sure to change as well. 

During his 2008 campaign President Obama used the advances in the internet to his benefit. He set out from the beginning to target audiences that are sometimes left alone. He wanted the minorities, the little people and seemingly most important, the youth. According to NY Times, he used twitter, YouTube for free advertisements, paid for Facebook ads to keep his name and message familiar to his audience. In this article, a political analyst Joe Trippi is quoted saying, “Just as Kennedy brought TV to presidency, and I think we are about to see the first wired, connected, networked presidency.” He is exactly right, President Obama is still on all of these social networks getting his goals known, and simply keep his public in the know.

            With every technology advance comes a change in politics. Be it getting the information to the press faster or directly to our computers within minutes, these changes have a dramatic effect on how the political campaigns are run. Many believe that without the internet President Obama might not have been elected. While that cannot actually be said, his political campaign in both 2008 and 2012 show the dramatic effect of using the internet and technology advances to your favor. It will be interesting to watch where politics takes the new advances in the coming elections.


Final Exam Question # 2

By: Courtney Kozieja

Word Count : 593

Final arrested develop

In “Democratizing Television,” critical pessimists, Miller, Chomsky, and McChesney, saw a more democratic society as a threat. They believed that big democracy would cause consumers to be frightened in to action, but it is quite the opposite. This chance to participate is empowering and a right. The First Amendment gives consumers the freedom of speech, therefore giving a change to speak their minds.

With advancements such as the Internet, it is easier to voice an opinion as well as chose what we see. This convergence of media is present in Al Gore’s “Current.” The interactive network allows people to submit and view the submissions online. In this case, Internet and television are dependent on each other and allow the person to consume as well as produce.

On page 280, the book quotes “A man with one machine is doomed to isolation, but a man with two machines can belong to a community.” The machines in this quote are referring to the television set and the computer. A television and computer allows the person to be in a “community” rather then just consuming it. This sense of community can either be found in discussing with someone on Facebook about what they just saw on the news or connecting with a fan page or group. On page 285, the Long Tail Model is said to be fans seeking out media rather then media seeking fans. An example of this would be the show “Arrested Development.” The cult favorite started in 2003 and had three seasons, but was cancelled in 2006 . Fans, outraged, took to Twitter and other media sources to say they wanted “Arrested Development” back. Finally in 2013, Netflix promised the fans a new season. This comeback would have been not possible if it were not for the internet.

With new advancements in technology a viewer’s choice is more possible. The start of choice in television began in the 1980s with cable and VHS Tapes. Consumers were allowed to participate in television by having a variety of channels or choosing what VHS to buy or watch. With new technology such as DVRs and OnDemand consumers are now choosing what and when to watch. The Internet also allows consumers the right to choose, but they also can comment and express their opinions about the shows.

I-phones have changed the way people participate in the media. Apps such as Youtube, Vine, and Netflix not only allow to choose when or what to watch, but where to watch them as well. A person can watch a season of “Scrubs” on the train or a funny video in the office. The app Vine, that has more than 13 million followers, enhances participation and democracy because the user chooses who to follow, showing only what the person wants or would like to see. Youtube and Vine allow people to post what they want without censorship and gives people the choice to watch it. These two apps also allow consumers to chose who is famous by how many views or likes the video receives. This participation gives average people the chance to receive fame.


New technology increases participation because it gives consumers the freedom to choose and express how they feel about the programs or videos. With technology always changing and the chance to participate becoming more available, it is important for us to create a meaningful relationship with media. This means to see media as something we can shape, not something that can shape us. Today, we should not just look at ourselves as consumers, but participants of media.

On the Question of US Statehood for Puerto Rico

By Tom Burke

This video explores Puerto Rico’s background and the island’s current as well as potential political relationship with the United States.  I chose to make this video because my family has always endorsed the incorporation of Puerto Rico into the United States, yet I did not know much about the subject.  Accordingly, I set out to educate myself about the island’s history and political status.  After making this video, it is my opinion that although the incorporation of Puerto Rico into the US is in the island’s best interest, Puerto Rico’s political status should be determined by the will of the people of Puerto Rico.  Yet, given that the people’s will remains inconclusive, I think any action taken to change the island’s political relationship with the US would be premature.

This video was produced in the prototypical “lecture” style with visual aids to help the audience retain the facts and figures given.

The most time-consuming elements in the making of the video (in descending order) were research, script-writing, and the addition of visual aids.

My Story: Los Angeles Trip 2011

“My Story” is about the four day trip my best friend, Kathleen, and I made to Los Angeles over winter break two years ago. It was a spontaneous trip to visit my sister,Cara, who had moved there earlier that year. When deciding on the topic for this video, I initially had trouble choosing which vacation I wanted to explore. But, because we did such a range of activities on the California visit, I thought the photographs of this trip would make for the most entertaining video. Cara, Kathleen, and I hiked the Runyon Canyon Loop, toured Sony Pictures Studio, strolled the Venice Boardwalk, worked out with famous aerobics instructor, Richard Simmons, and ate lunch at the Grove – an outdoor mall in Los Angeles.

Of course, it makes sense to use upbeat music for a vacation video, but more than that I also wanted to incorporate modern songs that captured the relaxing Southern Californian vibe I felt while in Los Angeles. For instance, as my introductory song, I used, “Life’s a Beach,” by Django Django. And, for pictures of our hike and Sony tour, I used, “Dani California,” by California’s own, Red Hot Chili Peppers. Lastly, I concluded the video with the mellow track, “Finer Feelings,” by Spoon. Making the playlist was perhaps my favorite part of the “My Story,”project, even though learning to adjust voiceover and song volume was challenging.

My Story: Going Abroad

By Margaret Dawson

I chose the whole abroad experience to try to encapsulate. I am not going to get the opportunity to go abroad because of my major and my direct roommate, Caroline, was going on about how much she loved going abroad and so I decided to try to learn about the whole abroad experience. It seemed relatively easy since I was here this summer with all of these seniors who had just come back from abroad, too. I wanted to know what I would be missing out on.

This video is partially informative and partially humorous. Basically, my mindset was “What would I want to know if I were a sophomore thinking about going abroad?” I know that there are information sessions about going abroad but you really don’t get to understand the abroad experience unless you hear the first hand stories, and not just the ones that are chosen by the abroad coordinators. You have to really talk to students personally to get a real understanding of what the experience is like, and so I tried to include funny moments as well as information about class sizes, etc. I had also hoped it would be a persuasive tool in getting students to look at traveling abroad not just at Loyola but also experiencing the world for themselves at least once.

There were a lot of challenges in producing this story. The two main ones were the backgrounds for the people I was interviewing and also the fact that I didn’t know what the people were going to say. I could have only guessed what they were going to say or how they would respond. I had a vision in mind going into this project and I didn’t end up with what I thought I would but I still think I managed to pull out some pretty good footage. Also, I had wanted to use backgrounds for each person but since the lighting was subpar, I couldn’t do a ‘green screen’ type thing and go in and cut out their backgrounds and put in my own images. Also, the footage was grainier for the interviews I shot in my dorm (which happened to be three out of the four). Lastly, I wish I had had more time to get more interviews because three of the seniors I interviewed went to Cork, so I would have preferred more diversity.

I shot all of the footage myself. The first few animated images I got from a royalty free, copyright free website and then converted them to an animated or cartoon style myself in Photoshop. The last four images were from Facebook, taken from three of the four people’s photos from abroad. I used a filter for those photos because the quality of photos that Facebook has is also less than I would like and doesn’t result in the nicest or sharpest of images.